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October 11, 2020

Akhsar al-Mukhtasarat | Book of Hajj | Entering Makkah

بَاب دُخُولُ مَكَّةَ

Entering Makkah

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يَسُنُّ نَهَارًا مِنْ أَعْلَاهَا, وَالْمَسْجِدُ مِنْ بَابِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ, فَإِذَا رَأَى اَلْبَيْتَ رَفَعَ يَدَهُ وَقَالَ مَا وَرَدَ, ثُمَّ طَافَ مُضْطَبِعًا لِلْعُمْرَةِ اَلْمُعْتَمِرُ, وَلِلْقُدُومِ غَيْرُهُ, وَيَسْتَلِمُ اَلْحَجَرِ اَلْأَسْوَدِ وَيُقَبِّلُهُ, فَإِنْ شَقَّ أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ, وَيَقُولُ مَا وَرَدَ, وَيَرْمُل ُاَلْأُفُقِيّ فِي هَذَا اَلطَّوَافِ, فَإِذَا فَرَغَ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ خَلْفَ اَلْمَقَام ِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَلِمُ اَلْحَجَرَ اَلْأَسْوَدَ وَيَخْرُجُ إِلَى اَلصَّفَا مِنْ بَابِه ِ فَيَرْقَاهُ حَتَّى يَرَى اَلْبَيْتَ, فَيُكَبِّرُ ثَلَاثًا وَيَقُولُ مَا وَرَدَ, ثُمَّ يَنْزِلُ مَاشِيًا إِلَى اَلْعَلَمِ اَلْأَوَّل ِ فَيَسْعَى شَدِيدًا إِلَى اَلْآخَرِ, ثُمَّ يَمْشِي وَيَرْقَى إِلَى اَلْمَرْوَةِ, وَيَقُولُ مَا قَالَهُ عَلَى اَلصَّفَا, ثُمَّ يَنْزِلُ فَيَمْشِي فِي مَوْضِعِ مَشْيِهِ وَيَسْعَى فِي مَوْضِعِ سَعْيِهِ إِلَى اَلصَّفَا, يَفْعَلُهُ سَبْعًا, وَيَحْسِبُ ذَهَابَهُ وَرُجُوعَهُ

It is recommended to enter Makkah during the day, from its highest point and to enter the Masjid from the Door of Bani Shaybah. This is the door that scholars identified as Bab al-Salaam. If that is the same Bab al-Salam that exists today is unconfirmed.  When the person sees the Kabah, he raises his hands and recites the following dua:

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلامُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلامُ، فَحَيِّنَا رَبَّنَا بِالسَّلامِ

O Allah! You are Peace, The Source of Peace
O Lord! Resurrect us in peace

اللَّهُمَّ زِدْ بَيْتَكَ هَذَا تَشْرِيفًا وَتَعْظِيمًا وَتَكْرِيمًا ، وَبِرًّا وَمَهَابَةً ، وَزِدْ مَنْ شَرَّفَهُ وَعَظَّمَهُ وَاعْتَمَرَهُ تَعْظِيمًا وَتَشْرِيفًا وَبِرًّا وَمَهَابَةً

O Allah! Increase this house in reverence, nobility, honour, dignity, and piety
Increase the reverence, honour, nobility, dignity, and piety of those who revere and honour it

الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ رب العالمين كَثِيرًا كَمَا هُوَ أَهْلُهُ، وَكَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِكَرَمِ وَجْهِهِ وَعِزِّ جَلالِهِ، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي بَلَّغَنِي بَيْتَهُ وَرَآنِي لِذَلِكَ أَهْلا
وَالْحَمْدُ للَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ دَعَوْتَ إِلَى حَجِّ بَيْتِكَ وَقَدْ جِئْنَاكَ لِذَلِكَ، اللَّهُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنِّي واعف عني، وَأَصْلِحْ لِي شَأْنِي كُلَّهُ، لا إِلَهَ إِلا أنت

Praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, immensely, just as befits Him, and whatever should be due to His Noble Face, the Strength of His Glory. Praise is due to Allah who brought me to His house and saw me fit for it. And praise is due to Allah in all circumstances. O Allah! You have called (Your servants) to make pilgrimage to Your inviolable House, and I come to You for that. O Allah! Accept it from me, grant me respite, rectify all of my affairs, there is deity worthy of worship but You.

 These duas cannot be said to be from the Sunnah as they aren’t authentically reported, but it can be said that they are an appropriate dua to make as the meaning is positive.

The person then makes tawaf of the Kabah with a part of the upper cloth (riza) under the right shoulder, leaving it bare (for men). The person doing Umrah intends the tawaf for Umrah. Other people coming for Hajj intend it to be the Tawaf of Arrival.

It  is called Tawaf al-Qudum (Tawaf of Arrival) as it is performed on arrival in Makkah. It is also referred to as Tawaf al-Tahiyyah (Tawaf of Greeting) as it has a similar purpose to the two Rakah prayer, known as Tahiyyat al-Masjid (Greeting of the Mosque), that is observed upon entering the Masjid.

It should be carried out by Hajj al-Ifrad and Hajj al-Qiran pilgrims after entering Makkah and before Wuquf at Arafat on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah at the latest. Umrah pilgrims don’t perform this Tawaf but observe the tawaf of Umrah instead, which is basically the same but with a different intention.

Imam Mansur al-Buhuti and the Madhab in general define “يَسْتَلِمُ” as touching with the hand. One then touches the Black Stone and kisses it. The Hanabilah specify that the kissing is to be done without making any sort of noise. If it is difficult to touch or kiss it, then one simply points at it. There is no kissing the hands etc involved. A person then says that which is transmitted:

بِسْمِ اللهِ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللَّهُمَّ إِيمَانًا بِكَ، وَتَصْدِيقًا بِكِتَابِكَ، وَوَفَاءً بِعَهْدِكَ، وَاتِّبَاعًا لِسُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest. O Allah! Out of faith in you, belief in Your Book, loyalty to You, Complying to the Sunnah of Your Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

As per Imam Ibn Najjar al-Futtuhi says that when one points, kisses, or touches the black stone, the above dua is to be read. This is said when one begins the tawaf. For every subsequent start, one only says, “AllahuAkbar”. The tawaf has to begin only from the Black Stone. Doing it from anywhere else is invalid and has to be repeated from the point of the Black Stone.

Someone who is not a resident of Makkah or coming from afar, jogs around the Kabah. This is done only for the first 3 rounds. After this is finished, one prays 2 rakats behind the Station (Maqam) of Ibrahim. These 2 rakat can be a part of an obligatory prayer or part of the Sunnah prayers as well. A person is allowed to make dhikr, recite the Quran, or any general dua as they like during the tawaf.

Then, the person at the end of his 7th tawaf, once again touches the Black Stone. He exits towards the Mountain of Safa from its door and ascends (not necessarily at the top) towards it till he can see the Kabah. Safa and Marwa are specific to Hajj and Umrah. It is compulsory that they be preceded by a tawaf of the Kabah. The tawaf is not specific to Hajj or Umrah. It can be done at any time and one should increase in it as much as possible.

On climbing Mount Safa, one says, “AllahuAkbar” three times and then says that which is reported 3 times and then makes dua as he pleases. This is the Mashhur of Madhab. Other scholars opine that it is only the takbeer that is done thrice and the specified dua only once.

لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ ، أَنْجَزَ وَعْدَهُ ، وَنَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ ، وَهَزَمَ الأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ

In a lengthy narration on the authority of Jabir, famously known as the Hadith of Jabir on Hajj, as recorded by Imam Muslim; part of the narration is,

“….He (the Prophet) first mounted al-Safa’ till he saw the House, and facing Qibla he declared the Oneness of Allah and glorified Him, and said:” There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah, One, there is no partner with Him. His is the Sovereign, to Him praise is due, and He is Powerful over everything. There is no diety worthy of worship but Allah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone.” He then made supplication in the course of that saying such words three times. He then descended and walked towards al-Marwa, and when his feet came down in the bottom of the valley, he ran, and when he began to ascend he walked till he reached al-Marwa. There he did as he had done at al-Safa’…..” [Muslim]

The person then descends, walks to the first signal and then speeds up or walks quickly to the other signal. As per the madhab, the women walk at a normal pace and do not hasten. One then continues walking, ascends Mount Marwah, and says what was said on Safa. One then descends, walking where one had walked, and walking quickly where one had previously walked till one reaches Safa. This is done seven times, where the walk from Safa to Marwah is counted as one and from Marwah to Safa is counted as another.

As per the opinion of many scholars of the Haramain, and the Mashhur of the Madhab, one starts to speeden up one’s pace or jog when one is at around 6 arms length from the signal or marker that is specified by the green light today. This is mentioned in al-Muntaha and al-Iqna’.

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وَيَتَحَلَّلُ مُتَمَتِّعٌ لَا هَدْيَ مَعَهُ بِتَقْصِيرِ شِعْرِهِ, وَمَنْ مَعَهُ هَدْيٌ إِذَا حَجّ َ
وَالْمُتَمَتِّعِ يَقْطَعُ اَلتَّلْبِيَةَ إِذَا أَخَذَ فِي اَلطَّوَافِ

The person who is performing Hajj Tamattu’ and does not have a sacrificial animal is released (tahallul) from his Ihram by shortening his hair. As for the one who has a sacrificial animal, they are released from their Ihram (tahallul) only after they have performed Hajj.

Why? The one doing Tamattu’ gets into a second state of Ihram when beginning Hajj later. In between these 2 Ihrams one can do whatever they wish including sexual intercourse with their spouse. This is for the one without a sacrificial animal.

The person performing Tamattu’ stops proclaiming the talbiyah (Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik) when beginning their tawaf. He continues with other forms of dua and dhikr.

 

Based on the Hanbali primer, Akhsar Al-Mukhtasarat authored by Ibn Balban al-Hanbali as taught by Sheikh Zahed Fettah حفظه الله

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