صِفَةُ اَلْحَجِّ وَالْعُمْرَةِ
How To Perform Hajj & Umrah
يُسَنُّ لِمُحِلٍّ بِمَكَّةَ اَلْإِحْرَامُ بِالْحَجِّ يَوْمَ اَلتَّرْوِيَة ِ وَالْمَبِيتُ بِمِنًى, فَإِذَا طَلَعْتِ اَلشَّمْسُ سَارَ إِلَى عَرَفَةَ, وَكُلُّهَا مَوْقِفٌ إِلَّا بَطْنَ عُرَنَ ة وَجَمَعَ فِيهَا بَيْنَ اَلظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ تَقْدِيمًا, وَأَكْثَرَ اَلدُّعَاءَ مِمَّا وَرَدَ
It is recommended for the person who is present in Makkah without the state of Ihram, to enter the state of Ihram for Hajj on the Day of Tarwiyah. This is the 8 Dhul Hijah. The person makes the intention for Ihram before the Day of Arafah. He remains and sleep in Mina. On the morning of Arafah, he walks towards it. All of Arafah is a place of standing with the exception of the Batn Uranah.
At Arafah, one joins Dhuhr and Asr prayers at the time of the Dhuhr prayer. This is only for those who are allowed to combine as per the Madhab. But in terms of practice, the major books transmit the second opinion, as seen in books of Imam Musa al-Hajjawi and Imam Buhuti based on the daleel is that everyone is allowed to combine at this point. Imam Ibn Qudamah, Imam Ibn Taymiyyah, and Imam Ibn Rajab have also leaned towards this opinion. The person now engages in consistently calling upon Allah with the recommended duas.
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
None has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone, with no partner or associate. His is the dominion, all praise is to Him, in His Hand is all goodness, and He is Able to do all things
The above dua is related in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, from ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin al-‘As, that he said, “The dua the Prophet ﷺ would repeat most often on the Day of Arafa was…”
لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ ، وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ
لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ ، وهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
“None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner.
To Him belongs Sovereignty and all Praise and He is over all things Omnipotent.”
وَوَقْتُ اَلْوُقُوفِ: مِنْ فَجْرِ عَرَفَةَ إِلَى فَجْرِ اَلنَّحْرِ, ثُمَّ يَدْفَعُ بَعْدَ اَلْغُرُوبِ إِلَى اَلْمُزْدَلِفَةَ بِسَكِينَة ٍ وَيَجْمَعُ فِيهَا بَيْنَ العِشَاءَيْنِ تَأْخِيرًا وَيَبِيتُ بِهَا, فَإِذَا صَلَّى اَلصُّبْحَ أَتَى اَلْمَشْعَر َاَلْحَرَامَ, فَرَقَاهُ وَوَقَفَ عِنْدَهُ, وَحَمِدَ اَللَّهَ وَكَبَّرَ وَقَرَأَ : فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُمْ مِنْ عَرَفَاتٍ اَلْبَقَرَةِ : 198 اَلْآيَتَيْنِ
From the Mufradat of the Madhab is that the time of standing is from the dawn of Fajr on the Day of Arafah up until the dawn of the next day on the Day of Sacrifice.
‘Urwa Ibn Madras who said, “I approached the Messenger of Allah at Muzdalifah when he was going for [the Eid] prayer and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I have come from the mountains of Tayi`. I have exhausted my mount and worn myself out! By Allah, I did not come across any hill without halting there. Have I therefore accomplished my Hajj?’
The Prophet said, ‘Whoever offers this prayer of ours, stands with us until we depart (and had stood at ‘Arafat beforehand, whether by night or day), has accomplished his Hajj and performed its rites ” This is recorded by Imam Ahmed and the authors of the Sunan. Imam At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Habban, al-Darqutni and al-Hakim declared it authentic. After mentioning the hadith in Muntaqa Al-Akhbar, Sheikhul Hanabila Imam Abu Barakat Ibn Taymiyyah wrote, “This is proof that the entire daytime of the day of ‘Arafat is the time allotted for standing at ‘Arafat.”
What is recommended from the Sunnah is to stand from Dhuhr to Maghrib.
After sunset, one goes to Muzdalifah and combines the Maghrib and Isha prayers at the time of Isha. The person is to spend the night there. According to the madhab, it is obligatory or the bare minimum time frame is to stay there till midnight and they can leave after that if needed. It is recommended to stay till Fajr. After one prays the Fajr prayer, he goes to al-Mash’ar al-Haram and climbs it. The person stands there and proclaims the tahmeed, the takbeer, and recites the 2 Ayat from Surah al-Baqarah, 198-199.
وَيَدْعُو حَتَّى يُسْفِرَ, ثُمَّ يَدْفَعُ إِلَى مِنَى, فَإِذَا بَلَغَ مُحَسِّرًا أَسْرَعَ رَمْيَةَ حَجَرٍ, وَأَخَذَ حَصَى اَلْجِمَارَ سَبْعِينَ أَكْبَرَ مِنْ اَلْحِمِّصِ وَدُونَ اَلْبُنْدُقِ, فَيَرْمِي جَمْرَةَ اَلْعَقَبَةِ (وَحْدَهَا ) بِسَبْعِ, يَرْفَعُ يُمْنَاهُ حَتَّى يُرَى بَيَاضُ إِبِطِهِ, وَيُكَبِّرُ مَعَ كُلِّ حَصَاةٍ, ثُمَّ يَنْحَرُ, وَيَحْلِقُ, أَوْ يُقَصِّرُ مِنْ جَمِيعِ شَعْرِهِ, وَالْمَرْأَةُ قَدْرَ أُنْمُلَة ٍ ثُمَّ قَدْ حَلَّ لَهُ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا اَلنِّسَاءَ ثُمَّ يُفِيضُ إِلَى مَكَّة
The person makes dua until “يُسْفِرَ” – the light starts to appear and just before the actual sunrise. He then proceeds towards Mina. When he is halfway and reaches the valley of Muhassir, he should hasten and gather 70 pebbles to throw at the Jamarat. The stones can be collected later as well, as this is not a fixed location. These stones are something that are larger than a chickpea but smaller than a hazelnut.
Why 70? On the first day (Day of Eid), the person is going to throw 7 pebbles at Jamarat al-Aqabat, which is the larger jamarat.
There are three Jamarat which are known as:
- Jamarat al-Aqaba or Jamarat al-Kubra (the big pillar)
- Jamarat al-Wusta (the medium or middle pillar)
- Jamarat al-Ula or al-Sughra (the small pillar)
The Jamarat indicate the three places where Shaitan tried to dissuade Prophet Ibrahim from carrying out the divine instruction that he had received. Therefore, the pillars are not the actual Shaitan as some are led to believe, but mark the places where Ibrahim was tested by the whisperings of Shaitan.
On Yawm al-Nahr, only Rami of Jamarah al-Aqaba (the big pillar) will be performed. It is forbidden to pelt the other two pillars, although no penalty is due if this is done.
On Ayyam al-Tashreeq, Rami of all pillars will be performed on each day, starting from the smallest pillar to the largest. However, carrying it out in a different order won’t necessitate a penalty, nor will Rami have to be repeated.
He raises his right hand till the white of the armpit is visible. This doesn’t mean that the armpit is to be seen literally. It is to emphasize and teach the height to which the hand is raised and to remove the doubt of it being an under-arm throw. At every stone that is thrown the person proclaims, “اللهُ أَكْبَرُ” and recites:
اللهم اجعله حجًّا مبرورًأ
O Allah! Me it a pious/accepted Hajj
A sacrifice for which one is forgiven and rewarded effort
One cannot throw all the 7 stones at once, shout, throw aggressively, or harm people. There is no basis for belief that the harder you throw, the more you hurt the Shaitan etc. This is a spiritual exercise.
It is an obligation to throw these 7 pebbles as per the Madhab. Now with the 63 pebbles that are left, 21 are thrown the next day, 21 the day after, and 21 the day after that.
Jabir ibn Abdullah I reported: Allah’s Messenger ﷺ flung pebbles at Jamarat on the Day of Nahr after sunrise and after that (i.e. on the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah when the sun had declined.) [Muslim]
After throwing the 7 pebbles on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, the person proceeds to slaughter their sacrifice or shorten or shave their hair completely. It is best to shave. The woman trims only a fingertip’s amount (approx 2 cm).
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِينَ
“O Allah! Forgive those who get their heads shaved.” The people asked. “Also those who get their hair cut short?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِينَ
“O Allah! Forgive those who have their heads shaved.” The people said, “Also those who get their hair cut short?” The Prophet (invoke Allah for those who have their heads shaved and) at the third time said, وَلِلْمُقَصِّرِينَ “also (forgive) those who get their hair cut short.” [Bukhari]
This is the first tahallul after which everything that was prohibited in the state of Ihram becomes Halal or permissible again except women (sexual intercourse, marriage, foreplay). This is known as At-Tahallul Al-Asghar.
Imam Ibn Najjar al-Futuhi says that 3 things are to be done on the Day of Eid; throwing the 7 pebbles at the Jamarat, cutting/shaving the hair, and tawaf. If a person does two of those things, then the person has attained their first tahallul. The person can now wear their normal clothes, apply perfume, cut their nails etc.
The recommended order is to throw the pebbles, slaughter the sacrifice, shave the hair, and then do tawaf. One can change the order if needed and there is no harm in it. The person then heads towards Makkah.
How does one attain the second tahallul? In al-Muntaha, the author writes that a person attains the second tahallul by completing the remaining rites and that includes the sa’ee for the one who hasn’t done it before.
فيطوف طواف الزيارة الذي هو ركن، ثم يسعى إن لم يكن سعى وقد حل له كل شيء
One then performs the tawaf. This tawaf is called Tawaf al-Ziyarah (Tawaf of Visitation) as it is performed on visiting the Kabah after leaving Mina. It is also called Tawaf al-Ifadah (Tawaf of Pouring Forth) because pilgrims pour forth into Makkah from Mina. It is sometimes referred to as Tawaf al-Hajj as it is, by consensus of all the madhaib as a Pillar of Hajj. This is the most important tawaf of Hajj.
One completes the sa’ee if not done before. After this point, the Hajj is complete and the person has attained the second tahallul where everything is now Halal or permissible for him including women.
وَسُنَّ أَنْ يَشْرَبَ مِنْ زَمْزَمَ لِمَا أَحَبَّ, وَيَتَضَلَّع َ مِنْهُ, وَيَدْعُوَ بِمَا وَرَدَ, ثُمَّ يَرْجِعَ فَيَبِيتُ بِمِنًى ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ, وَيَرْمِي اَلْجِمَارَ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ اَلتَّشْرِيقِ بَعْدَ اَلزَّوَالِ وَقَبْلَ اَلصَّلَاةِ, وَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ, إِنْ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ قَبْلَ اَلْغُرُوبِ لَزِمَهُ اَلْمَبِيتُ وَالرَّمْيُ مِنْ اَلْغَدِ
It is recommended to drink from the Well of Zamzam and to intend and make dua to Allah for something that he wishes. One drinks till he has his fill and makes dua that is narrated:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا وَرِزْقًا طَيِّبًا وَعَمَلاً مُتَقَبَّلاً
O Allah, I ask You for beneficial knowledge, goodly provision and acceptable deeds
The Prophet ﷺ said, “Zamzam water is for whatever it is drunk for” [Ahmad]. There is some difference on the authenticity of this hadith but overall it is a good narration. It is a blessed drink and cure as is authentically established. A person can intend for a righteous spouse, righteous children, stronger memory, doors of rizq etc
Imam Ibn Qudamah said in Al-‘Umdah, “It is desirable for a person to drink Zamzam water for whatever desire he wishes and to drink his fill and then say, ‘O Allah! Make it for us a beneficial knowledge, an abundant provision, a quench for our thirst, food to satiate us, a healing from every disease, and wash my heart with it, and fill it [my heart] with Your fear and wisdom.’” This supplication is said after drinking Zamzam water.
One then returns and spends 3 nights in Mina and this is an obligation. One throws the pebbles (63) as mentioned above on each of these 3 days of Tashreeq after the sun reaches its zenith (zawal) and before the Dhuhr prayer. Vast majority of the scholars say that the pebbles are to be thrown after Dhuhr. Scholars of the Haram like Sheikh Ibn Jibreen opined that one is allowed to pelt the Jamarat even in the morning after Fajr as the place today is absolutely packed and can cause a lot of harm. This opinion is also attributed to Ata’ and others from the Salaf irrespective of the large numbers.
Narrated Salim bin Abdullah: Abdullah bin `Umar used to do Rami of the Jamrat-ud-Dunya with seven small pebbles and used to recite Takbir on throwing each stone. He, then, would proceed further till he reached the level ground, where he would stay for a long time, facing the Qibla to invoke (Allah) while raising his hands. Then he would do Rami of the Jamrat-ul-Wusta similarly and would go to the left towards the level ground, where he would stand for a long time facing the Qiblah to invoke (Allah) while raising his hands. Then he would do Rami of the Jamrat-ul-Aqaba from the middle of the valley, but he would not stay by it. Ibn Umar used to say, “I saw Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) doing like that.” [Bukhari]
Narrated Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid: I performed Hajj with Ibn Mas’ud , and saw him doing Rami of the big Jamra (Jamrat-ul-Aqaba) with seven small pebbles, keeping the Kabha on his left side and Mina on his right. He then said, “This is the place where the one on whom Surat-al-Baqara was revealed (i.e. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)) stood.” [Bukhari]
There is no sin upon the person if the person throws on the 11th and 12th and leaves early. If the person delays and hasn’t left before the Maghrib of 13th, then they have to spend the night and throw on the morning of 13th. The one who threw only on 2 days has thrown only 49 pebbles (7+21+21).
وَطَوَافُ اَلْوَدَاعِ وَاجِبٌ يَفْعَلُهُ, ثُمَّ يَقِفُ فِي اَلْمُلْتَزمِ دَاعِيًا بِمَا وَرَدَ, وَتَدْعُو اَلْحَائِضُ وَالنُّفَسَاءُ عَلَى بَابِ اَلْمَسْجِد
The Farewell Tawaf is an obligation. It is also known as also known as Tawaf al-Sadr (Tawaf of Leaving). An expiation is due if this tawaf is not done. The person after the tawaf, stands at the corner of the Black Stone and the Door (al-Multazam) and make the dua that has been narrated.
اللهم هذا بيتك وانا عبدك وابن عبدك وابن أمتك، حملتني على ما سخرت لي من خلقك، وسيرتني في بلادك، حتى بلغتني بنعمتك إلى بيتك، وأعنتني على أداء نسكي، فإن كنت رضيت عني فازدد عني رضا، وإلا فمن الآن فارض عني، قبل أن تنأى عن بيتك داري، فهذا أوان انصرافي، إن أذنت لي، غير مستبدل بك ولا ببيتك، ولا راغبا عنك ولا عن بيتك، اللهم فاصحبني العافية في بدني، والصحة في جسمي، والعصمة في ديني، وأحسن منقلبي، وارزقني طاعتك ما أبقيتني، واجمع لي خيري الدنيا والآخرة، إنك على كل شيء قدير
O Allah! This is Your House, and I am Your servant, the son of Your two servants. You have carried me on one of Your creatures that You have made submissive to me, bringing me to Your land, by Your Grace, I reached Your House, and You Graced me that I might fulfill Your rites. If you are pleased with me, then be more so and if not, then bless me now before I become distant from Your house. Now is the time I depart if You permit me, who seek none but You and no other than Your House, and I am not averse to You or Your House. O Allah! Give me good health in body and protect me in my religion. Make my affairs turn out well and give me sustenance of obedience to You as long as You let me live. Give me the best of this world and the next, for truly You have Power of everything.
A menstruating woman or one undergoing post-natal bleeding makes dua from the gates of the Masjid. This is a matter of difference among the scholars. Some permit it, but the Madhab does not permit their entrance based on the evidence presented.
The menstruation woman is explicitly excused from the farewell tawaf. Narrated Ibn Abbas: The people were ordered to perform the Tawaf of the Kabah (Tawaf-al-Wada`) as the lastly thing, before leaving (Makkah), except the menstruating women who were excused. [Agreed Upon]
وَسُنَّ زِيَارَةُ قَبْرِ اَلنَّبِيِّ وَقَبْرَيْ صَاحِبَيْه ِ
It is recommended to visit the grave of the Prophet ﷺ and the graves of his two companions (Abu Bakr and Umar). The person can give salam and make dua. A person should face the qiblah when making dua as is mentioned by Imam Mansur al-Buhuti in Sharh al-Muntaha.
وَصِفَةُ اَلْعُمْرَةِ: أَنْ يُحْرِمَ بِهَا مَنْ بِالْحَرَمِ مِنْ أَدْنَى اَلْحِلِّ, وَغَيْرُهُ مِنْ دُوَيْرَةِ أَهْلِهِ, إِنْ كَانَ دُونَ اَلْمِيقَاتِ, وَإِلَّا فَمِنْهُ, ثُمَّ يَطُوفُ وَيَسْعَى وَيُقَصِّرُ
The Description of performing Umrah: Any person within the Haram boundary enters into the state of Ihram from the closest point from outside the Haram boundary. Today, many prefer to do so from Masjid Aisha. Others enter into Ihram from their homeland if that is closer than the appointed miqat. Otherwise, the person enters into Ihram from the miqat. The person then performs tawaf, sa’ee, and then shortens their hair.
Based on the Hanbali primer, Akhsar Al-Mukhtasarat authored by Ibn Balban al-Hanbali as taught by Sheikh Zahed Fettah حفظه الله